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UE revizuiește interdicția pesticidelor care omoară albinele

UE revizuiește interdicția pesticidelor care omoară albinele

albineAutoritatea Europeană pentru Siguranța Alimentară a început o revizuire legislativă care ar putea modifica o interdicţie aflată în vigoare, ce împiedică utilizarea a trei pesticide neonicotinoide la nivelul Uniunii Europene. Pesticidele ar fi responsabile pentru scăderea populațiilor de albine în ultimii ani, informează The Guardian. Într-o scrisoare adresată Comisiei Europene luna trecută, oamenii de știință din cadrul instituției europene susțineau că vor finaliza evaluarea riscurilor până la sfârșitul lunii ianuarie 2017.

„Restricțiile privind folosirea neonicotinoidelor rămân în vigoare pe parcursul realizării acestei evaluări”, a declarat, pentru publicaţia britanică, un purtător de cuvânt al Comisiei Europene. „În funcție de rezultatul evaluării, comisia va propune, dacă va avea motive, să se modifice condițiile de aprobare pentru cele trei neonicotinoide”.

Experții ar putea alege să înăsprească sau să relaxeze interdicția actuală asupra folosirii clothianidinudului, imidaclopridului şi thiamethoxamului. Măsura a fost introdusă în 2012 la inițiativa Autorităţii Europene pentru Siguranţă Alimentară (EFSA) pe motiv că reprezintă un pericol „inacceptabil” la adresa albinelor. Această victorie pentru ecologiști a fost câștigată cu greu în detrimentul unor producători de pesticide ca Bayer Crop Science, care a considerat interdicția ca fiind „draconică”.

De atunci, au apărut tot mai mult dovezi științifice care arată legătura dintre declinul albinelor și folosirea pesticidelor. Săptămâna aceasta, de exemplu, Agenția pentru Protecția Mediului din SUA a publicat rezultatele unor experimente în teren care arată că imidaclopridul determină scăderea stupilor. Se pare că pesticidele afectează acea parte a creierului albinelor în care este stocată informația senzorială privind orientarea. Cercetătorii cred că expunerea chiar și la doze mici de pesticide derutează albinele, care nu mai găsesc cu ușurință surse de alimentație sau drumul înapoi către stup.

Greenpeace s-a declarat optimistă cu privire la evaluarea organismului european. „Industria pesticidelor a făcut lobby puternic pentru ca aceste standarde să fie respinse. Dar UE are un mandat legal să protejeze albinele de pesticidele dăunătoare, iar o evaluare solidă a riscului este baza pentru acest lucru”, a declarat Franziska Achterberg, director în cadrul Greenpeace.

Valoarea estimată a albinelor din Europa este de 22 de miliarde de euro, dar una din șase a murit între 1985 și 2005, cele mai mari scăderi înregistrându-se în Marea Britanie, Germania și Suedia. În prezent, peste un sfert din albinele din Europa și una din 10 albine la nivel global sunt expuse pericolului, potrivit Uniunii Internaționale pentru Conservarea Naturii. România este printre singurele ţări din Uniunea Europeană care a continuat să utilizeze neonicotinoidele, cerând derogări de la UE pentru folosirea lor.

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